Saturday, July 18, 2020

Psychometric Properties in a BPD Test

Psychometric Properties in a BPD Test BPD Diagnosis Print Psychometric Properties in a BPD Test By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Learn about our editorial policy Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 13, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 29, 2018 Tim Macpherson/Stone/Getty Images More in BPD Diagnosis Treatment Living With BPD Related Conditions The psychometric properties of a psychological test relate to the data that has been collected on the test to determine how well it measures the construct of interest. In order to develop a good psychological test, the new test is subjected to statistical analyses to ensure that it has good psychometric properties. There are two broad types of psychometric properties that a test must have in order to be considered a good measure of a particular construct: reliability and validity. Reliability as a Psychometric Property The first type of psychometric property is called reliability. This is the psychological tests ability to measure the construct of interest consistently and in a stable manner. A measure of something cannot be more valid than it is reliable. Test-Retest Reliability If the test is reliable, your results on that test should be very similar if you take the test today and again in six months. This is called test-retest reliability. For example, you take a test to determine your likelihood of having borderline personality disorder (BPD) in January, then again in July, and you should have similar results. One problem with the reliability of testing the same person twice using the same test is that the patient could remember the questions from the last time they took the test. This could have a variety of consequences. Parallel Forms for Reliability Parallel forms is another measure of reliability and designed to avoid the issues brought about by using the same exact test twice. To increase the reliability of this psychometric property, clinicians administer parallel forms of a test. In other words, two similar, not exactly the same, versions of a measure. Other Types of Reliability There are other types of reliability. Internal consistency refers to the point that all the items in the test should be measuring the same construct. Inter-rater reliability addresses the protocol to determine if multiple judges have a high degree of consensus. Validity as a Psychometric Property The second broad property that a good test has validity, which refers to how well the test accurately measures the construct of interest. The results should correspond with what the researcher stated was the focus of the study. For example, the results of a good borderline personality test should be highly related to behavior that is typical of borderline personality disorder (for example, someone with a high score on a BPD test should also have a lot of problems with emotion regulation). The two broad categories of validity are internal and external: If the study has external validity, it falls in line with previous findings on the same, or similar, topic.Internal validity is about the degree of confidence the researcher has in his own results and is based on a variety of factors, including characteristics of the sample, measures, and the research design. Face Validity Face validity refers to how valid the person taking the test thinks it is. For example, if the test taker has a bad attitude toward the test, including finding the layout confusing or the thinking the test administrator is a jerk, an otherwise valid measurement might produce an erroneous result.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay - 1318 Words

In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, which proposed the theory of evolution. This book, along with others that followed, began the long dispute between evolutionist and creationist. Were we created by a supernatural Supreme Being, or did our creation occur purely by chance? First, lets look at the two conflicting theories. Common usage of the term â€Å"evolution† is that living things in our world have come into existence through unguided naturalistic processes beginning from a primeval mass of subatomic particles and radiation, over 20 billion years ago. The idea of Creation comes from the first two chapters of Genesis which states that God created the heavens and†¦show more content†¦Therefore we have a catch-22 situation. Besides, there are geological evidences that confirm the existence of an oxidizing atmosphere as far back as can be determined. Among these are: the oxidation of ferrous iron in early rocks, and the precipitation of limestone in great quantities.1 Now, lets assume for a minute that the ideal environment for evolution to occur existed. We would then need a means by which the basic building blocks of life could be constructed. Before you can assemble the large macro-molecules necessary for life you must have a ready supply of basic organic molecules. Among these would be tons of sugars, amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines. Now assuming we had a vast primitive ocean full of these molecules there are still obstacles that would need to be overcome to have a suitable ocean. The first problem would be the diluting effect of the vast ocean. There would not be enough quantities of each basic molecule for molecular formation therefore insufficient quantities would result. The second problem would be that in order for chemical bonds to form there would need to be an external source of energy. Unfortunately t he same energy that creates these bonds is much more likely to destroy them. The last major obstacle to overcome would be the incompatibility of differentShow MoreRelatedEvolution Creationism Vs. Creationism924 Words   |  4 PagesAny point of contact with the scientific world in the 21st century will eventually lead one to the one of the most hotly contested topic in American education, that of evolution versus creationism. While the creationist point of view, as well as the evolutionary perspective, hosts a great variation of opinion amongst its supporters, Christianity is brought to the center stage time after time (Vuletic, 1994). Literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis’ account of creation falls contrary to theRead More Evolution Vs. Creationism Essay1323 Words   |  6 PagesEvolution vs. Creationism Abstract In the history of science vs. religion there have been no issues more intensely debated than evolution vs. creationism. The issue is passionately debated since the majority of evidence is in favor of evolution, but the creation point of view can never be proved wrong because of religious belief. Human creation breaks down into three simple beliefs; creation theory, naturalistic evolution theory, and theistic evolution theory. The complexities of all threeRead More Creationism vs. Evolution Essays1663 Words   |  7 PagesCreationism vs. Evolution This paper will focus on the huge controversy between Creationism and Evolution. I will provide two opposing viewpoints on this subject. First, the discussion will focus on the question of why many people believe that God created the universe and all living things. On the other end of the spectrum, scientific information will be presented that substantiates the evidence against the existence of God. This creationism counter-argument known as evolution has itsRead More Evolution vs. Creationism Essay917 Words   |  4 Pages Evolution vs. Creationism The Evolution vs. Creationism controversy goes all the way back to the Publishing of Origin of Species in 1859 by Darwin laying the foundation for the evolution of life to be understood. Scientists are continuously finding more evidence to support Darwin’s conclusion; that organisms descended from a common ancestor modified by the mechanism of natural selection resulting in the evolution of species adapting to their environment. The following are the main geological topicsRead More Creationism vs. Evolution Essay1158 Words   |  5 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Where we come from is a question as old as mankind itself. There are countless numbers of religions, each with their own twist on the origins of earth and mankind, but one of the most highly visible debates would be creationism vs. evolution. Depending on where your beliefs lie, the Earth has been around somewhere in the neighborhood of 6,000 years to 4.5 billion years. One would tend to believe that this vast differe nce in time would make it impossible to have 2 â€Å"theories† thatRead MoreCreationism Vs. Evolution1130 Words   |  5 Pages Where do we come from? The creation of the world has been told through many different stories, and from a variety of religions across the world. The argument between evolution and creation has been debated back and forth for years. So how do we know which claim is correct? Has all life evolved from simple bacteria to all the species that appear today, or did life on earth begin with Gods creation of Adam from dust and his partner Eve from adam’s rib bone. As a child I grew up attending church everyRead MoreEvolution Vs. Creationism Debate1265 Words   |  6 PagesIn this paper I will be explaining two sides of the evolution vs. creationism debate. The topics I am going to write about are fossil evidence, the origin of life, and Darwin’s â€Å"theory† of natural selection. I will be presenting a view of both sides of the argument they will be on the creation side and evolution standpoint. I would suggest that you, the reader, would have a previous knowledge of all the topics so that you may get a full understanding of both sides. If there is no prior knowledgeRead MoreCreationism vs. Evolution Essay1170 Words   |  5 Pagesassumptions with empirically deduced scientific theories. The Catholic Church had a nasty habit of persecuting such ideological dissent toward creationism, calling it heresy and thereby somewhat suppressing a complete upheaval of the Scriptures. For many centuries to come, the scientific research grew and developed into theories like the Big Bang and evolution, though primarily in places where such progress was tolerated. The state of Tennessee in 1925 was not such a place. In the town of DaytonRead MoreCreationism vs. Evolution Essay1349 Words   |  6 Pages Creationism is the theory that man, the earth, and the rest of the universe was originally created rather than randomly exploding from nothingness into chance existence. We reside on the surface of a small superbly crafted, autonomous self regulating spac e vehicle. Together with survival, conquest and death we bear witness to beauty, fragrances, love and music. Think about this. Mathematics, philosophy, springtime, depravity, farming, courtship, quasars, and iphones; all came from nothingness?,Read MoreEssay on Evolution VS. Creationism1412 Words   |  6 Pagesof man and how all living things acquired their characteristics. The two main theories that arose over time were Creationism and Evolution, both of which provided very distinct answers to this question. Creationism based its answer on the idea of a supernatural power or being that created the entire universe, man and the numerous other organisms that live within it. While, Evolution theorizes that all living things have the potential to change and grow over time into something new and different

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The True Beauty Of Religion - 1617 Words

Since the dawn of civilization, religious practices and rituals have greatly impacted various societies around the world. Religion is intertwined with almost every aspect of life, ranging from culture, to politics and can even be found in basic social interactions. Regardless of how religious one may be the impact it has on each individual’s life is significant. The true beauty of religion is the fact that there is no set definition, allowing for each region of the world to interpret and practice their beliefs in their own manner. Naming a newborn child is considered a significant rite of passage in numerous religions all around the world. Many religions believe that providing the newborn with a proper name in the eyes of God is a†¦show more content†¦Due to their strong faith, the Jewish community continually looks to uphold God’s laws, attempting to bring holiness to each aspect of their daily lives. It is important to note that there are sects within Judaism, stemming from cultural nuances and geographic location. This means that there are different rituals and practices between the various sects within Judaism. Chabad is one of the world s most known Chasidic movements and is well known for its outreach in the community. It is the largest Jewish religious organization in the world. The Chabad movement represents an intellectual, spiritual school of thought established and led by a dynasty of Hasidic Rabbis. Founded in the late eighteenth century, the Chabad movement originated in Eastern Europe. Chabad Hasidic philosophy focuses on religious and spiritual concepts such as God, the soul, and the meaning of the Jewish commandments. Though there are several sacred traditions and rites in Judaism, the baby rite is one of the most significant events of the religion. The Chabad movement within Judaism has their own secular beliefs about the name rite of a newborn child. The C habad follow the Midrash relates, which are a collection of teachings from the Torah. The Midrash relates state that the Jewish people were freed from Egyptian rule under the merit of four virtues. The first of these virtues dictates that they do not change their names. This is important

Global Online Marketing A Concept Replacing Traditional Marketplaces Free Essays

string(144) " it uses the aid of technological tools such as portals, customer relationship management software, employee management software, and websites\." Abstract: Contemporary marketing has evolved into a large concept which includes the aspect of â€Å"idea marketing†. As the definition of marketing has evolved, so has the need for marketers to use technology to support the process. This paper discusses global online marketing, its advantages, and the ethical dilemmas associated with its use. We will write a custom essay sample on Global Online Marketing: A Concept Replacing Traditional Marketplaces or any similar topic only for you Order Now It also then discusses whether global online marketing can take over the traditional marketplace and whether this would prove to be beneficial for both consumers and marketers. Introduction: Marketing is an evolutionary concept which has been constantly growing over time, specifically in the more recent decades that have brought along significant technological change. While the definition of marketing has evolved in this era, so have the manner in which it is conducted and the mediums that it is conducted through (Rossiter, 2001). This significant change has caused the uprising of several questions which include has the meaning of marketing changed with the onset of the internet?, is the internet an ethical tool to use in attempting to persuade consumers to purchase products?, and whether online marketing has taken over the traditional marketplace and how? This paper will focus upon the topic of global online marketing and whether this phenomenon has replaced the traditional marketplace. The paper will begin by focusing upon the changing definition of marketing and how technology has accommodated it, continue with an analysis of online marketing, the benefits provided to customers/marketers through online marketing, and the ethical dilemmas associated with its used. The paper will then analyse how global online marketing has become the norm and the benefits and/or consequences of it replacing the traditional marketplace along with recommendations regarding how the internet can be used to the consumer/marketers’ advantage and how its negative impact can be reduced. The paper will conclude with a summary of the main points mentioned Evolution of the Definition of Marketing and its Impact on Technology: Marketing has been a concept which has gradually outgrown its previous definitions as various external factors have affected the way it is interpreted and understood by marketers and scholars alike. While there is increasing debate regarding the definition of marketing, Peter Olsen stress that most scholars in the discipline of marketing are satisfied with Kotler’s definition of marketing which says, â€Å"Marketing is human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes† (Kurzabard Soldow, 2007, p. 37). However, for those who were slightly unsatisfied with this previous definition of marketing, the American Marketing Association described marketing as, â€Å"The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, distribution of ideas, goods, services to create exchanges that satisfy individual organizational objectives.†(Kurzbard Soldow, 2007, p. 38). However, most of the previous definitions applied to marketing, emphasized that the main goal of marketing was the exchange of goods and services (Kotler, 1972). Nonetheless, we often see people campaigning in the streets for support for a particular cause or we are approached by people who ask for donations for a particular charity. While we may have no particular association with the cause or the charity and we expect nothing in return from them personally, we are influenced or affected by the ideas presented to us. This can also be regarded as a form of â€Å"non-business marketing† and can be associated with Kotler’s classification of marketing into three levels of consciousness, the first regarding it as a business subject associated with buyers, sellers, other economic products services, and the second extending marketing as appropriate for all organizations that have customers (including non-profit organisations) (Kotler, 1972). While the definition of marketing had previously evolved to include the activities of non-profit organizations seeking to gain customers/donaters/supporters, etc., it can now be classified to encompass much more than that. This is described by Kotler’s (1972) consciousness three which describes marketing as â€Å"an organisation’s attempt to appeal to its public, not only its consuming public†. While this level of marketing may not have been given a high level of support in 1972, contemporary business practices urge organizations to be socially responsible, encourage motivational behaviour with employees, and also require coordination with suppliers. Thus, it is now just as essential to market an organisation appropriately to employees, society, suppliers, the media, and several other stakeholder groups of the organisation. Some stakeholder groups can be effectively dealt with personally, such as banks who are offering the organisation a loan. This institution can be personally marketed an idea which leads the bank officer to sanction the loan and would result in an exchange between the two parties as the bank gives the organisation money and the organisation agrees to pay the bank interest on the borrowed amount. However, how can the director of an organisation employing thousands of employees worldwide influence the employees to accept a new employment contract promoting a different combination of incentivesHow can he/she personally motivate them or congratulate them on a job well done? Coming back to the traditional view of marketing as a profitable process between buyers and sellers, we can apply the following scenario. How can an organisation encourage an overweight customer to try a newly formed formula which would help her reduce her weight when she is not even aware of the product and perhaps the fact that she even requires itIt would first be essential for the organisation to form the idea within her mind that she is overweight and then inform her about the existing product. However, it is obvious that this task cannot be fulfilled in person as that might be considered rude and highly inappropriate. This is where technology intervenes and begins our discussion on the concept of â€Å"idea marketing† and global online marketing. Global Online Marketing and its Advantages: The evolving definition of marketing and the need of contemporary businesses to satisfy various stakeholder groups have led to the increased use of technology in marketing processes. Thus, as a business seeks to satisfy stakeholders or project certain ideas towards them, it uses the aid of technological tools such as portals, customer relationship management software, employee management software, and websites. You read "Global Online Marketing: A Concept Replacing Traditional Marketplaces" in category "Essay examples" A charity uses the aid of a website which informs all of its stakeholders regarding its cause, how it seeks to implement it, and all other parties that it is associated with. In the same manner, a business organisation uses the aid of a website to illustrate all of its processes including sections mentioning its relationship with its suppliers, social responsibility practices, and sections featuring its financial statements and the dividends paid to shareholders. Simil arly, customer relationship management software is used to gauge and understand consumer wants, market potentially desired products to consumers, and facilitate communication between the organisation and the customer (Pines, Peppers, Rogers, 2009). While the internet aids in satisfying these needs of contemporary business organizations, it also serves the current definition of marketing which includes â€Å"idea marketing† and is said to have a core concern of â€Å"producing desired responses† (Kotler, 1972). Thus, while it would be difficult to convince an overweight customer that she needs to try a new weight loss formula or to attempt to sell an exceptionally revealing piece of lingerie to a woman who is conservatively dressed, doing this through online marketing would make it more convenient and acceptable to both the customer and the marketer. There may also be instances in which the customer may feel uncomfortable in walking into a store and asking the salesman which type of brassiere would make her breasts look more erector explaining the condition of a particularly nasty occurrence of acne on her upper thigh and asking what type of ointment would help cure it? Online marketing would help in this regard as it enables open communication between the customer and the marketer and enables the marketer to expressly form ideas into the customer’s mind. As Kotler (1972) mentions, the marketer â€Å"seeks to influence† in any manner and then eventually seeks to â€Å"produce a desired response† which may be in the form of support for a cause or an idea or in the form of the purchase of a product. Thus, global online marketing is usually conducted through social media platforms, websites, and personal email in certain situations. The marketer uses these platforms to illustrate their message with the aid of pictures, virtual demonstrations, and articles which may seek to persuade or inform the customer regarding various uses, benefits, and opinions regarding the product (Pires, Stanton, Rita, 2006). This allows the flow of information from the marketer to the customer and allows convenience to both parties. For example, it is not easy for a marketer to stop people in the street and coerce them to view the design of a new mobile phone and ask them for their opinion on it. For all the marketer may know, the person may not be the least interested in mobile phones or may not need a new one. It is also then not easy to stop all of the people in the street and tell them about the various types of reviews that the newly designed phone has. Accordingly, online marketing enables the marketer to efficiently and effectively aim at the target audience and project their message towards them. It also enables the marketer to give the customer as much information as they deem necessary in order to persuade the customer to support a particular idea or purchase a particular product. More importantly, it enables the marketer to quickly transmit this information to the customer such as in the instance of a sale or a contest occurring for a particular product or brand (Burton, 2001). As Kotler’s (1972) explanation of generic marketing and the strategies involved in producing a desired response from the customer includes designing the product in a more attractive manner, presenting the product to the customer on more attractive terms, adding symbolic significance to the product, and making the object more accessible, online marketing assists each of these processes. While online marketing helps the marketer provide the custome r with information, illustrations, and persuasion of the product’s attractiveness and also mentions the terms on which the product can be bought or acquired (such as discounts or a giveaway contest), it can also help add symbolic significance to the product by featuring an article or video, showing the product being used by a celebrity or on a particular occasion. Moreover, it has enabled marketers to get feedback regarding their product and effectively communicate with customers through an economical platform. One very important function that online marketing is now performing for the marketer is making the product more accessible for the customer (Rossiter, 2001). Through e-commerce, marketers have been able to target a large amount of consumers and made the product highly accessible through the click of a mouse. Thus, through the aid of cookies and through previous purchase behaviour, businesses are able to gather information regarding what the consumer needs or is interested in and then make customly designed offers which suit the customer’s needs. This has enabled an increase in sales and has also enabled the marketer to save costs which are associated with setting up and managing physical shops and employing large amounts of labour. As emphasized by Pines, Peppers, Rogers (1995), it has also enabled marketers to anticipate consumer wants and personally develop a learning relationship with their customers by understanding what their customers need and enabling them to retain their customers forever. Online marketing enables mass customization in an economical manner, which is not a process that can be fulfilled in a traditional shop in a cost-effective manner and if done manually would probably lead to a confusing and disorganized situation (Gummesson, 2002). However, global online marketing has not only facilitated the marketer, but has specifically empowered the customer as well according to Pires, Stanton, Rita (2006). It enables the customer to ask questions and access information without the obstacle of embarrassment, lack of demonstration, and at their own leisure. Thus, while a traditional shop may close at 6 pm, a potential customer may require information regarding a product after he/she gets off from work. Online marketing enables the customer to easily and effectively gain this information through technological means at any time he/she pleases. Moreover, online marketing has enabled the customer to access as much information as he/she deems necessary and guide the marketer regarding his/her needs and demands. The customer is able to provide feedback and make comments regarding a product. Moreover, the customer is also able to customly design the type of product he/she needs or suggest the type of offer that would attract him/h er towards purchasing a particular product. This enables the customer to take charge of his/her preferences and purchases and adds to the customer’s convenience. This is also said to result in a higher satisfaction level within consumers (Gummesson, 2002). While there are numerous advantages of global online marketing, there are also certain disadvantages or ethical concerns associated with its use. Ethical Concerns of Global Online Marketing: While a consumer may significantly benefit from targeted offers which suit his/her needs/wants, it is also of concern, how marketers are able to make these offersOnline marketing software enables a marketer to install cookies on the consumer’s computer and keep track of the types of websites that the consumer regularly visits and the types of purchases he/she makes. Accordingly, while keeping track of the consumer’s behaviour, the marketer is able to show the consumer advertisements of offers that may interest him/her. However, how often have you opened a website and made a secret purchase which you did not want anyone to know aboutThen, how is it ethical for a business to know what you have been doing onlineThis raises the concern of privacy and plagues many consumers who are not highly enthusiastic about being followed online (Philip, 2000). Moreover, how would you feel if you made a purchase of lovely pink bunny slippers online and the very next day when your friend was using your computer, an advertisement featuring a similar product popped upIt would most likely be a cause of immense annoyance and embarrassment which is also an ethical concern of global online marketing. It is deemed highly unethical to bombard consumers with advertising material when they are least expecting it or especially when they least desire it. Moreover, several studies have also claimed that bombarding a consumer with offers for a particular product when they do not desire such interruptions can lead to resentment towards the product and create a negative image of the product for the consumer. It is also highly inappropriate for organizations to bombard the consumer with advertisements when they are not sure whether the consumer is in appropriate company to view those advertisements or whether it is the appropriate occasion (Golding, 2000). An additional ethical concern is the processing of online transactions which involves the collection of financial information such as credit card numbers and bank account details. Research has proven that 48% of consumers are highly suspicious of this process and refrain from online shopping because they are unwilling to divulge such information online. This is a major concern because some of this information is used unethically or fraudulently which then leads to severe consequences for the customer. Moreover, customers are also highly skeptical of online hackers who break into such websites and gain such financial information regarding consumers, thus then using it in a negative manner in order to cause the consumer financial loss. This is known as cyber crime (Fuat, 1997). The dilemma of not knowing who you are communicating with and the credibility of the person/organisation is the main ethical concern which is highly distressing for customers and is a hinderance which organizations are attempting to overcome. Despite the ethical concerns of using online marketing, a large proportion of marketers/businesses have successfully adopted it and it is becoming increasingly accepted amongst consumers. It may be said that global online marketing is taking over traditional marketplaces. Is Global Online Marketing Taking Over Traditional Marketplaces and Should It? The use of online marketing is becoming widespread despite the initial reaction of consumers of suspicion regarding whether it can be ethically used or not. Allegedly, the concept has turned the whole world into a global marketplace as businesses are easily able to sell and market their products to customers in different countries. Many businesses have adopted the concept and made it the prime focus of selling/marketing to customers, an example is Amazon. While the concept has largely taken over the traditional concept of a marketplace and may be replacing the traditional marketplace at an increasing rate, there are many reasons why it cannot fully take over and also many reasons why it should not (Hunt, 1994). The advantages of global online marketing include convenience, access to information, accessibility, ease of use, and access to a large market which can be targeted effectively. It also enables making partnerships with other firms on the basis of sharing data. However, the ethical dilemmas concerning it include privacy issues, suspicion regarding the revealing of financial details, and bombarding the customer with unwanted advertisements at inconvenient times. Similarly, the reasons that global online marketing cannot fully take over the concept of the traditional marketplace include the fact that half the world still does not have internet access and many businesses are targeting certain groups of consumers that are not privileged with access/knowledge of using the Internet. For example, consumers in many Third World countries and in other inaccessible areas do not have access to the Internet and are often even unaware of how to use a computer. It would be highly ineffective for a m arketer to attempt to target and reach these audiences with online marketing. Another important reason that global marketplaces cannot take over traditional marketplaces is because some products require physical viewing and cannot be purchased after viewing online demonstrations or reading descriptions of the product. This may be specifically true in the case of automobiles or even in the case of clothes which need to be tried on before purchase. Moreover, while in some situations the client may feel more relaxed in talking about or asking questions about the product online, there are some sitatuons which require personal involvement and personal contact between the client and the marketer (Hunt, 1994). For example, many brides-to-be would not be highly happy about conversing with the computer regarding their preferred wedding dress and would appreciate personally talking to a sales representative. While these are some of the reasons that online marketplaces cannot take over traditional marketplaces, there are also some reasons which suggest that this should not happen even if it is becoming the norm. First of all, online marketing is taking over the advantages of the value chain and is possibly taking over the concept of a retail store, thus putting many retail stores at a disadvantage. This can mean a loss of business for many people who are in this part of the value chain. Moreover, online marketing means that there is less need for physical labour and a different type of expertise required which may also significantly increase the rate of unemployment and may be a major concern (Woodall, 2001). Another problem with online marketing is that the image it portrays to consumers and the manner in which it glamorously displays products coaxes many consumers to spend hard-earned money on products that they do not need. It often causes consumers to purchase goods that they would not have purchased otherwise and is a rising concern for many countries as it has led to problems of shopaholics. In other cases, consumers are often sold products that they thought were somethingelse or looked differently online, but were given products which are vastly different from their expectations (Woodall, 2001). Thus, it is evident that while the concept of global online marketing is becoming increasingly popular, widely accepted, and gives advantages and empowerment to both the marketer and consumer, the concept still has certain disadvantages which may prevent it from becoming the sole form of business between organizations and consumers. Accordingly, it is recommended that global marketers use this platform as a way to communicate with their customers and project ideas into their minds while also gaining essential feedback, but not to rely on it as the sole form of communication or exchange between customers and the organisation. Moreover, organizations should be sensitive towards privacy issues of customers and refrain from the use of cookies without explicit permission from their customers. They should rely upon customer feedback, previous purchase information, and comments that the customer willingly provides regarding his/her purchasing preferences. Organisations should refrain from u sing pop-up advertisements and target the customer in a more discreet manner such as when he/she clicks upon a certain relevant page or through personal email or social media platforms (news popping up in newsfeed on Facebook). Other forms of marketing such as radio, television, and personal contact should also be used in order to be able to facilitate and attract all types of customers instead of limiting the market to only a particular group of customers. Conclusion: The paper discusses how the evolving definition of marketing has resulted in the need to use technology to support marketing practices. It has established that there are various advantages associated with using online marketing which include convenience, accessibility, and the amalgamation of essential information for both customer and marketer. However, the paper has also pointed out that there are certain disadvantages to the use of online marketing and reasons why it cannot take over the concept of a traditional marketplace. References Burton, D. (2001) â€Å"Critical Marketing Theory: The Blueprint†. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 35 5/6 pp. 742-743 Fuat, A. (1997). â€Å"From segmentation to fragmentation: markets and marketing strategy in the postmodern era.† European Journal of Marketing. Vol.31(3-4) pp.183-185. Golding (2000) â€Å"Forthcoming Features: Information and Communications Technologies and the Sociology of the Future† Sociology. Vol 34 (1). Gummesson, E. (2002) â€Å"Practical value of adequate marketing management theory† European Journal of Marketing .Volume 36 (3) pp.325-349 Hunt, D. (1994) â€Å"On Rethinking Marketing: Our Discipline, Our Practice, Our Methods† European Journal of Marketing Vol. 28(3) pp. 13-25. Kotler, P. (1972) â€Å"A Generic Concept of Marketing†, Journal of Marketing. Vol. 36. pp. 46-54 Kurzbard, G. Soldow, G. (2007) â€Å"Towards a Parametric Definition of Marketing† European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 21 (1) pp. 37-47 Philip, E. (2000) â€Å"Strategy the End to the Endgame?†(impact of Internet economy on strategy). Journal of Business Strategy. Vol.21 (6) p 12 Pines J., Peppers, D., Rogers, M. (1995) â€Å"Do You Want to Keep Your Customers Forever?† Harvard Business Review. pp. 105-114 Pires, G., Stanton, J. Rita, P. (2006) â€Å"The Internet, Consumer Empowerment, and Marketing Strategies†. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 40 9/10 pp. 936-949 Rossiter J. (2001) â€Å"What is marketing knowledgeStage 1: Forms of marketing knowledge†. Marketing Theory. Vol. 1 pp. 9-26 Woodall, T. (2001). â€Å"The Epistobabble Kid Rides Again: A Stephen Brown (Selective) Retrospective.† Marketing Review. Vol. 2 (2) pp.147. How to cite Global Online Marketing: A Concept Replacing Traditional Marketplaces, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Malorie Blackman’s Noughts and Crosses Essay Example

Malorie Blackman’s Noughts and Crosses Paper In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet (c. 1595) and Malorie Blackman’s 2001 Noughts and Crosses, the theme of forbidden love is greatly conveyed throughout both texts. The themes are similar in each text, regardless of the severe differences in era which are highlighted contextually throughout each of the works. Forbidden love is the foundation to which the downfalls of characters occur and is a key component to the storylines of both texts. In both works, the character’s downfalls are greatly contributed to by those surrounding the main protagonists. This allows for the surrounding characters to stand out as the causes for the bad happenings in both texts, as it is they who make the love forbidden and perhaps thus more desirable to the protagonists. Sacrifice is a key theme in both works which helps to convey the way that both couples’ love is extremely important to the characters. Sacrifice is shown in Romeo and Juliet when they sacrifice their own lives because they are forbidden to be together. Romeo and Juliet sacrifice themselves because of what they believed in. The sacrifices also show that they would rather die than live without their love being allowed and accepted by the people around them. Juliet’s last words, â€Å"There rust and let me die†, emphasise the sacrifice that she makes upon learning of Romeo’s death. The words ‘let me’ show that Juliet wishes to be left to die, much in the way that she wanted to be allowed and left alone to love and be with Romeo. The idea of Juliet being allowed to die shows that she is making the sacrifice of her life as it is, in her mind, the only thing left that she can do which will be her own decision. We will write a custom essay sample on Malorie Blackman’s Noughts and Crosses specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Malorie Blackman’s Noughts and Crosses specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Malorie Blackman’s Noughts and Crosses specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer She shows here that she wishes not to live without Romeo and without their love. The idea of Juliet lacking control over her future was a key concern in the Elizabethan era in which the play was written. This is down to the fact that young women like Juliet would have had decisions on big life choices often taken out of their hands. Fathers (or the head of the family) would often have the final say over who the daughter marries. This is shown in Juliet’s situation where her family have intentions for her to marry Count Paris, whilst she wishes to marry Romeo. Sacrifice is also conveyed in Romeo’s death in which before dying he says ‘here’s to my love. ’ This allows the link between the couple’s sacrifice and their love being forbidden to become apparent through the way that Romeo states that his death is for his ‘love. ’ Shakespeare’s use of the word ‘Here’s’ conveys that Romeo is killing himself for his love. Additionally, the word ‘here’s’ would usually be used in a kind of toast or tribute towards something. This allows for Romeo to glamorise his death by it being down to the love forbidden between the couple. The sacrifice in Romeo and Juliet coincides with Shakespeare’s famous genre of tragedy, which is conveyed throughout a number of his works but especially in Romeo and Juliet. David Scott Kastan suggests in his analysis that â€Å"Tragedy, for Shakespeare is the genre of uncompensated suffering. † I would agree with this idea as Shakespeare has incorporated this theory into Romeo and Juliet. The idea of the suffering being ‘uncompensated’ relates to the couple’s situation since they do not get any reward or gain for what they have endured in the end. This point relates to the couple making their individual sacrifices of life as these acts are uncompensated and unrewarded; they gain nothing from their actions. This idea of uncompensated sacrifice is down to the matter of their love being forbidden. The love being forbidden between the two characters results in the sacrifice of their own lives which shows how passionate both characters are about their love. It is conveyed in the language before each death that their sacrifices clearly link to their love being forbidden and frowned upon by others. Similarly, in Noughts and Crosses, Callum sacrifices his life for what he believes in. The ultimatum to sacrifice his life for the life of his baby or his baby’s life for his, results in Callum deciding to be executed. Much like in Romeo and Juliet, Sephy and Callum’s situation is out of their hands and out of their control. The people around them force the couple to make the decision as to who to sacrifice. Callum’s explanation that â€Å"He pulls the hood over my head. I try to pull back. Im not trying to run away. I just want to see her One last time † highlights his desperation to see Sephy for the last time. This conveys Callum’s love for Sephy and his position shows where the couple’s forbidden love has gotten him. This helps to highlight the way in which the couple’s love is truly forbidden and shows the extent of punishment for making their love known by having a baby. â€Å"I’m not trying to run away† shows the way in which Callum faces up to his inevitable sacrifice in the moment of it. Highlighting that he is ‘not’ trying to run away shows that he has accepted his fate to be executed. This shows the way that Callum has come to terms with the sacrifice he must make and in this he shows that he truly would rather save his unborn baby’s life than live on himself. The ellipsis conveys the tone of Callum’s thoughts as, whilst he clearly shows acceptance of his situation, its fragmentation highlights the way he feels about Sephy and it shows how he is much weaker and more emotional when it comes to thinking about her. The ellipsis at the end of the sentence could also represent the end of Callum’s life, as though it is to be continued. This idea could foreshadow the future after his death, conveying the way that his death could alter the views upon Noughts and Crosses being segregated in the future. Much like in Romeo and Juliet, the couple have to sacrifice something regardless of what they choose, whether it be their unborn baby or Callum himself. Whilst Romeo and Juliet would have not lost a physical person if they had not have sacrificed themselves, they would have lost out on the love that they wished to share together. The sacrifice of Callum’s life in Noughts and Crosses shows the way that the couple are forced into making a sacrifice in order to stand up for what they believe in. It also shows the extent of how forbidden their love really is, how seriously the people around them perceive it and how they are controlled by those around them to the point of a forced sacrifice. The outcomes postliminary to the sacrifices in each novel can give an array of answers as to whether the characters’ actions and decisions in the end benefitted each of society’s harsh beliefs around them. The characters surrounding the two couples in each text contribute a great amount to the outcomes and the decisions that the main protagonists make throughout the novels. This conveys the way in which the great sacrifices of life in each text affect the characters surrounding the main protagonists and shows these characters’ reactions to the events that they have partly caused. It allows the remaining characters in the texts to question whether the love was forbidden enough for lives to be lost. In Romeo and Juliet, after the couple sacrifice their lives, it is clear to see that the families put their feuds aside. Upon realising that the pair’s death was down to their love being forbidden by the families, Capulet refers to Montague as ‘brother Montague. The use of the word ‘brother’ highlights Capulet’s desire to resolve the feud. He has realised what has been lost because of the families’ differences. Referring to Montague as ‘brother’ may also indicate the way that Capulet feels guilt and remorse for what the situation has resulted in. In religious terms, ‘brother’ can also be used as a way to refer to a respected fellow male of the same faith. Since the play is set in Catholic Verona, it is possible that Shakespeare uses this language to suggest the respect from a religious perspective that Capulet wishes to show for Montague. This highlights that the families are not so different and shows that they do share similarities, regardless of their great feud. When Capulet exclaims ‘Poor sacrifices of our enmity! ’ Shakespeare demonstrates that Capulet understands exactly why Romeo and Juliet sacrificed themselves. The word ‘our’ shows that he accepts the shared blame for the deaths of the pair. The word ‘enmity’ connotes friction and hostility, which evidences the severity of the feud. The exclamation point after ‘enmity’ also helps to portray Capulet’s heartache and remorse as it makes his statement more dramatic and as though he has come to a great realisation. The tone created by the punctuation results in the strong, powerful man seeming helpless and remorseful, allowing the audience to recognise Capulet’s downfall just as he has. On the contrary, Callum’s death in Noughts and Crosses does not seem to affect the surrounding characters to the same extent as the tragedy in Romeo and Juliet does. Whilst Romeo and Juliet choose to sacrifice themselves, Callum is forced into execution after refusing to allow his unborn child to be executed. This may explain the neutral reaction after his death, because it was planned and intentional. After Callum’s death, it is clear to see Sephy’s upset and grievance, as expected. However, the situation in society does not change. In the sequel to the novel, Callum’s death is shown to have had an effect on society and shapes what will be accepted for the future. However, in the first of the Noughts and Crosses series, in the little time after Callum’s death, no characters responsible seem to feel remorseful. Blackman points out that â€Å"The deputy Prime Minister [Kamal Hadley] was unavailable for comment’’, making it clear that Kamal Hadley wishes to make no comments publicly about the execution of Callum McGregor. Since this is the last statement made about Kamal in the novel, it is unclear whether he refuses to comment because he does not care about Callum’s death or whether he refuses because he is guilty and remorseful. From Kamal’s attitude towards Callum throughout the novel, it is likely that he is careless and thoughtless of his death. However, it seems unusual that a man of such power and firm beliefs, would not make a statement or speech justifying his reasons for giving the pair this ultimatum in an attempt to get the public on his side. On the other hand, it could also be argued that there is no comment made because, despite what happened, Sephy gives her baby daughter Callum’s last name: ‘’Miss Hadley has issued a statement that her daughter†¦ will be taking her father’s name of McGregor. † The fact that Sephy is able to issue a statement whilst her father is not could show that she is the stronger one out of the two of them. It shows that, despite what has happened, she will continue to stand for what she believes in and not be put down by the beliefs of those surrounding her. Kamal’s failure to make a statement could be down to embarrassment as, despite killing Callum, he has not stopped his daughter from doing the unthinkable by having a child with a Cross. Although at this stage in the series there are no sure indications of how the events will effect society, Blackman foreshadows the events of the following books by incorporating such bravery and self-belief into Sephy’s character, right up until the end of the text. The forbidden love in both texts is ushered along by characters that could be considered as assistants or helpers to each couple in their different situations. Friar Lawrence comes across clearly as the helper in Romeo and Juliet in the way that he supports the couple. He believes that their love could be beneficial for both characters’ families, remarking that In one respect I’ll thy assistant be, For this alliance may so happy prove To turn your household’s rancor into pure love. Here, Friar Lawrence expresses the fact that he seeks to be an ‘assistant’ for the couple. He explains his reasons for believing that he should be, by expressing that he thinks the love could have a positive outcome for both families. The word ‘alliance’ connotes the idea to join and unite. This conveys Friar Lawrence’s want for unison and peace between the two families and shows that he believes the pair’s ‘alliance’ could help to achieve this. The word ‘rancor’, connoting bitterness and spite, describes the rottenness of the relationship between the two families. Friar Lawrence then uses ‘pure love’ to describe the way that the families could become if united. The use of ‘pure’ connotes innocence, fairness and also conveys religious imagery. The religious imagery here could be used to convey the way in which the couple’s love would be pure and not tarnished or affected by the evil in those around them. The religious imagery is contextually relevant to the setting of Romeo and Juliet as Roman Catholic Verona was obviously notably religious. It could also be used to indicate that Friar Lawrence expects them to marry and be a respectful, traditional couple of the time. The words ‘rancor’ and ‘pure love’ are a stark contrast. It allows for the two feelings to be conveyed and show the way in which the families will over time transform from feelings of bitterness and hatred to feelings of friendship and unison. This conveys the way that Friar Lawrence has good intentions for the couple, allowing the reader to see that he is a character with a good heart in the play, striving to do the right thing. Friar Lawrence clearly does not approve of the feud that the families have with each other. Similarly, in Noughts and Crosses, Jasmine Hadley does not seem to believe in the segregation between Noughts and Crosses, despite her ex-husband greatly believing in it and being a strong proponent of the cause. Jasmine proves this from the beginning of the novel when she shows herself to be a good friend of a Cross, who also works for her family. Jasmine is much like Friar Lawrence in the way that she also acts as a kind of assistant for Callum and his family without them knowing. However, whilst Friar Lawrence is open with Romeo and Juliet about assisting them, Jasmine is not. She secretly helps the family out of fear that she may be negatively affected and judged if people find out that she, as a Nought, is helping a Cross. This is demonstrated through her confession that â€Å"I did everything that was humanly possible to make sure Ryan McGregor wouldn’t hang. And that’s not to leave this room. Here Jasmine proves that she does have a guilty conscious towards the way that the crosses were treated. Her specification of ‘Humanly possible’ suggests that Jasmine did absolutely everything she could. However, this is contrasted by the possibility that Jasmine could have spoken up against what was happening as a well-respected Nought woman, and could have used her power to try and negotiate a change in how the Crosses are being treated. This shows the way in which Crosses would not speak out against the segregation and unfair treatment even if they wanted to. It highlights the way in which even they felt threatened to share their opinions and beliefs. This conveys the way in which even the Crosses found it hard to speak out against a firm, in place system. Jasmine’s insistence that â€Å"And that’s not to leave this room† backs up the idea that Crosses were afraid to speak out for what was right. Jasmine shows that even she is fearful of what would happen if people knew that she attempted to help a Nought family. Both novels convey helpers or assistants that attempt to help the different situations along the way. Friar Lawrence does it because he openly believes that it is the right thing to do. On the other hand, Jasmine Hadley acts upon her guilty conscience for the unfair way that the Noughts are treated. This conveys the way in which Friar Lawrence as a helper is selfless and helping for the best intentions, whilst Jasmine Hadley is helping because of her guilty conscience and inability to speak out for what she believes is right. Both works have clear themes of forbidden love shown throughout each text. Whilst the texts are both written by two very different writers and set in extremely different times, the themes and ideas are still similar throughout. The strong link between the two texts is the way in which the surrounding characters impact each of the situations and alter the end result of both texts. Without the surrounding characters, there would be no forbidden love and thus no storyline for either of the texts. Both texts provoke thought amongst the audience as to whether the dramatic acts of that characters will alter the society’s views in each of the texts, or whether life will stay the same; cruelly ignoring what has been lost and what has been broken beyond repair.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Essay on Natural Capitalism

Essay on Natural Capitalism Essay on Natural Capitalism Section 1 Sustainability is a scientific concept that involves both biology and physics and describes the limits that society has overtime to grow and continue to prosper. Hawken’s believes that the economy in its correct state will eventually deplete all its natural resources becoming non-existent. Capitalism will always be financially profitable and we can’t continue to fool ourselves into thinking we will never run out of resources to make our loves more comfortable and efficient. We can create an economy that can be sustainable forever just by understanding and recognizing our dependence on natural resources. This is the vision of Paul Hawkens; he believes we must find ways to use our natural resources more efficiently while replenishing them at the same time. The author advocates assigning private property rights to national resources. He also believes this will entice owners to care more for the environment in order to see continuous profits. There are four basic principles that are needed in order to achieve this: 1. Radical Source Productivity-You are making more for less, using less or recycled materials which produces less waste. 2. Biomimicry-Designing systems around nature and learning from it. 3. Service and Flow Economy-Deliver a continuous flow of service and value. If customers see a corporation. 4. Invest in Natural Capital-Corporations need to become more aware of the natural resources they use and find efficient ways to use and replenish them. They then become socially responsible. Section 2 Corporations need to understand the environment and ways to transform their production habits in order to become more efficient at using our natural resources. This becomes their fiduciary duty. One road block to sustainability is cost and price. Hawkens advocates for state government only and that the federal government should have more subsidizes to the renewable energy industry. As it stands now subsidizes are provided to the Cuban fuel industry and the author is definitely for the separation of business and state. Government and private industry need to redirect the dollars that are currently designated toward industrial capital and reinvest that money in natural and human capital. He also believes that by assigning private property rights to natural resources is a way to ensure efficient use of those very resources that promotes sustainability. If we believe in our investments we will be more inclined to want to continue to see profits. Maximizing our profits and replenishing our natural resources will become a habit by consistency being positively reinforced. Corporations need to be educated on the efficient use of natural resources. They have the ability to be leaders and need to ensure that all employees are of the same mind set. The media can be used to their advantage and research is showing that customers are more inclined to purchase products from companies that are trying to leave less of a carbon footprint. Actively engaging their communities and educating local people on recycling and renewable energy, which is critical to saving our natural resources. Section 3 In order to preserve our national resources I think it’s important to establish some type of requirement for social responsibility (The key to getting everyone on board is through education). Corporations that are socially responsible will continue

Monday, March 2, 2020

Famous vs. Infamous

Famous vs. Infamous Famous vs. Infamous Famous vs. Infamous By Maeve Maddox I have long bewailed the misuse of the word famous to apply to bad people, reminding readers that the word for widely known people of ill repute is infamous. Now I’ve discovered that not only is famous erroneously applied to gangsters and murderers, but now the word infamous is being flung about as if it meant noted or simply, known. The site that brought this latest misuse to my attention features a slideshow about male celebrities who are shorter than average. Each slide provides information under the following headings: Height Date of Birth Number of Children Infamous for One or two of the celebrities are â€Å"infamous for† cocaine use, but the information that appears under the â€Å"infamous† heading for the others is nothing to be ashamed of. Here are a few examples of the behavior labeled infamous on this site: was a dishwasher once was the son of scientists sometimes hides his hand in his pocket to conceal its trembling wears thick black horn-rimmed glasses worked in a beauty salon after high school was godfather to another celebrity’s children These acts hardly fit the OED definition of infamous: Of ill fame or repute; famed or notorious for badness of any kind; notoriously evil, wicked, or vile; held in infamy or public disgrace. Here, for example, are some infamous people noted for their infamous acts: Ivan the Terrible Jack the Ripper Pol Pot Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Josef Stalin Delphine LaLaurie Josef Mengele Tomas de Torquemada Actions that warrant the description of infamous include: burning people to death, performing surgical experiments on conscious children, blinding your architects, boiling your treasurer–that kind of thing. The preoccupation with the celebrity of people–famous or infamous–has coined a new expression: â€Å"famous for being famous.† In the past, the usual way to acquire fame or notoriety was to excel at something, whether writing, acting, or governing. With the advent of self-generated publicity, some people manage to become a focus of public attention for nothing at all. Frequently cited examples of this type of non-fame are: the Kardashian sisters, Paris Hilton, Kato Kaelin, Heidi Montag, Kelly Osbourne, and Ivanka Trump. Here are some words other than famous or infamous that may be used to describe a well-known person: well-known prominent famed popular renowned noted eminent distinguished esteemed celebrated respected illustrious acclaimed great legendary lionized notorious Most of these words are applicable to people known for doing commendable things. The other kind of people are perhaps best ignored as much as possible. Famous and Infamous on Newspapers Monsanto to ditch its infamous name after sale to Bayer (www.theguardian.com) - Syrian Kurdish fighters have detained two British men infamous for their role in the Islamic State’s imprisonment, torture and killing of Western hostages, according to Am (www.nytimes.com) on Broadway’s least-discovered northern stretch.Broadway is arguably the most famous thoroughfare in the world (by one measure, 250 million hits on Google versus 6 million for the Champs-Élysà ©es) (www.nytimes.com) Related posts: â€Å"Famous Doesn’t Apply to Murderers or Gangsters† Video Recap Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Direct and Indirect ObjectsHyper and HypoA Yes-and-No Answer About Hyphenating Phrases